Most of us are aware of Type 2 Diabetes. However, do you know that there are several other types of diabetes that are grouped under Diabetes mellitus? One such disorder is Type 1 Diabetes. Are there any differences between Type 1 and 2 Diabetes? Do they have any similarities? Read on to know more!Contents:
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder with the exact cause being unknown. People with Type 1 Diabetes are born with the genetic susceptibility to develop the condition. The condition is then triggered due to certain immunological or environmental factors like exposure to chemicals, viruses, etc. Type 1 Diabetes can also be caused by injury to your pancreas.
Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by poor lifestyle habits such as a lack of physical activity, being overweight or obese, an unhealthy diet, having metabolic syndrome (high blood pressure, high cholesterol, excess fat in the abdominal region), smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption. Having a family history of diabetes, being older than 45 years of age, or having health conditions like hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome, gestational diabetes, etc. can increase your chances of developing Type 2 Diabetes.
Both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes have similar symptoms, as symptoms are generally caused by high blood glucose levels. Some of the most commonly observed symptoms in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are as follows
Acanthosis nigricans (skin that is darkened and velvety to touch, commonly found in skin folds) is a symptom caused by insulin resistance. Thus, it is present in Type 2 Diabetes and absent in Type 1 Diabetes.
The differences in terms of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in terms of symptoms stem from the speed of onset and severity. In Type 1 Diabetes, the symptoms are severe and develop over a period of weeks or months. In Type 2 Diabetes, the symptoms are often mild and develop over a period of years.
The tests for diagnosing high blood glucose levels in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are the same.
You can read more about these tests here.
The diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes is confirmed by performing the following tests:
Type 1 Diabetes has only one treatment, which is insulin injection. A healthy diet, regular exercise, and healthy lifestyle habits can also help you manage the condition effectively.
Type 2 Diabetes management includes oral hypoglycaemic medication, a well-balanced diabetic-friendly diet, regular physical activity, weight management, and other healthy lifestyle changes.
The complications of both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are similar, as they are caused by high blood glucose levels. Overtime, high blood glucose levels can damage your blood vessels leading to the following complications.
Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes can also cause other short-term complications like hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose levels) and diabetic ketoacidosis (dangerously high blood glucose and ketone levels).
Short-term complications are more commonly observed in Type 1 Diabetics. Type 1 Diabetics tend to develop complications earlier in their life as they develop their condition at a young age.
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent Type 1 Diabetes at present, as the cause of the condition is still unknown.
Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented with healthy lifestyle habits like eating a well-balanced diet, regular exercise, weight control, stress management, quitting smoking and alcohol, etc.
The following table summarises the key differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.
|Parameter||Type 1 Diabetes||Type 2 Diabetes|
|Insulin production||Absent||Present (sometimes insufficient)|
|Age of onset||Children, adolescents, young adults||Usually over the age of 45 years|
|Risk factors||Genetic susceptibility||Lifestyle habits, family history, metabolic syndrome, etc.|
|Onset of symptoms||Rapid||Gradual|
|Treatment||Insulin||Oral hypoglycaemics, insulin (in some cases)|
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